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Coal chemical industry development problems and policy response

wallpapers News 2020-10-05

large-scale development of coal-to-gas instead of coal-fired, in fact, will only transfer the pollution emissions from the east to the west, which will increase the national emissions on the whole, is not conducive to climate change. Therefore, coal to gas should at most be a supplementary means to guarantee the supply dem of natural gas control haze.

coal chemical industry refers to the process in which coal is converted into gas, liquid solid products or semi products by chemical processing, then further processed into chemical energy products. Under the background of haze control, the development of coal chemical industry has a special significance for China's future energy economic sustainable development. The products of traditional coal chemical industry such as coke calcium carbide are indispensable industrial raw materials for agriculture, steel, construction other related industries. The products of the new coal chemical industry are mainly clean energy products substitutes for petrochemical products, such as gasoline, diesel, aviation kerosene, ethylene raw materials, etc. On the one h, this kind of substitution is in line with China's resource endowment of rich coal, poor oil little gas; More importantly, at present, China's dependence on oil natural gas has reached 58.1% 31.6% respectively. In the future, this proportion will continue to exp. Therefore, the development of coal chemical industry has important strategic significance for China's energy security.

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"coal to gas" seem to provide power for the recent coal to liquid (gas) projects to obtain "roadblocks", there is another round of investment in coal chemical industry. In view of this, on July 22 this year, the State Energy Administration issued the notice on stardizing the scientific orderly development of coal to liquid coal to natural gas industries. According to the notice, the national development Reform Commission the energy administration are studying formulating the guiding opinions on orderly promoting the construction of coal to liquid demonstration projects the guiding opinions on steadily promoting the industrialization demonstration of coal to natural gas, which will be released implemented in the near future. The circular stressed that it will further stardize the coal to liquid gas industry prohibit the construction of coal to natural gas projects with an annual output of 2 billion cubic meters or less coal to liquid projects with an annual output of 1 million tons or less. Driven by various factors such as dem growth, coal price continuously falling, local government interests other factors,

have rapidly exped the scale of China's coal chemical industry in recent years. In 2013, the output of coal to liquid project reached 1.7 million tons, methanol output reached 29 million tons, coal to olefin output 1.8 million tons, coal to natural gas demonstration project output reached 2.7 billion cubic meters.

have a long history. Take a few examples: in 2013, China's excess coking coal production capacity has exceeded 150 million tons, which has led to continuous price decline, the loss area of the industry has reached about 40%; in terms of methanol, according to the data of the General Administration of customs, China's methanol consumption in 2013 was 32.87 million tons, while the methanol production capacity in 2012 had exceeded 50 million tons, accounting for half of the world's total capacity. Now the new coal chemical industry is gradually showing signs of excess capacity. According to some data, as of June 2014, the total planned production capacity of coal to gas projects has reached 225 billion cubic meters / year, which is 4.5 times of the target of 50 billion cubic meters / year for the end of the 13th five year plan (2016-2020) set by the national energy administration. This figure is even larger than last year's 167.6 billion cubic meters of natural gas consumption. At present, more than 10 coal to liquid projects have been completed, under construction planned construction, the total planned production capacity has exceeded 30 million tons, reaching the planned target output by the end of 2020.

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coal chemical industry development power question

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coal chemical industry has always been the coal enterprises local governments yearn for, because the extension of its industrial chain may mean more profits more GDP, tax employment. There is also a big reason to say: China's energy reserves of "rich coal, less gas, poor oil" provide the basic conditions arguments for the development of coal chemical industry, while adequate coal supply low coal cost relative to other energy varieties are the key to the competitiveness of coal chemical products. The development of coal chemical industry can also optimize the energy structure relieve the pressure of oil supply. There seems to be a good reason to develop coal chemical industry. On the other h, even if the current coal price is low the market situation is not good, the survival of coal enterprises alone is also enough to provide the motivation for the development of coal chemical industry. In addition to the "spkds" coal industry boom in the provinces, it is difficult to stop the development of "spkds" coal market. The purpose of the local government's vigorous development of coal chemical industry is to improve the added value of coal, realize the local processing transformation of coal, promote the growth of local GDP employment. The main consideration of enterprises is the cost profit of coal chemical industry. The basic conclusion of a coal to liquid project study earlier is: in terms of investment, the cost of building a factory of the same size in China is only 65% of the cost in the United States; in terms of coal cost, the cost of coal mining is much lower than that in the United States; in terms of human capital, a project of the same size in Inner Mongolia is 80000 yuan per worker a year, while in the United States it is 80000 US dollars. Therefore, enterprises believe that coal to liquid project has profit space. The accounts of

reflect the optimistic judgment of local governments enterprises, but they are not convincing enough. Coal chemical industry is a capital intensive industry, its economy needs to be measured from the return of investment cycle. The profit of enterprises is affected by market capacity, also by the cost of water resources, environmental costs, human resources costs other dynamic factors, these costs will enter a period of rapid growth. Recently, the low coal prices of

have made the investment in coal chemical industry more enthusiastic. It seems that a new round of large-scale overcapacity can be seen. In the case of large capacity planning, investment is pouring in again. However, under the background of haze control, coal chemical industry will face great risks if it does not grasp the market space profits do its homework well. Whether the development of coal chemical industry in

is beneficial to environmental governance can be taken as an example. On the one h, China's energy structure is "more coal than gas". On the other h, environmental governance requires reducing coal consumption increasing natural gas consumption. It seems that the purpose of large-scale development of coal to gas is to solve the contradiction of natural gas shortage provide possibility for solving urban haze. Because, at least on the surface, coal to gas is a clean energy with low emissions. Actually notTo guide the orderly development of the chemical industry, we should carefully plan the two key issues of where to do what products to do, implement total amount control. In consideration of local conditions, the development of coal chemical industry should start from the local resources energy endowment economic basic conditions, fully consider the market factors, meet the local construction transportation conditions, avoid blind development without considering the local situation resource characteristics. In consideration of the products, we should try to choose some products which are relatively environmentally friendly, with a large market gap are conducive to deep processing to improve added value. We should pay attention to the main research fields key technologies of coal chemical industry, try to adopt environment-friendly high-tech.

first of all, take the opportunity of the 13th five year plan as an opportunity to stardize the project approval process, formulate strict industrial access requirements, grasp the total amount control. The above notice issued by the State Energy Administration in July this year once again stressed that the construction of coal to gas projects with a scale of 2 billion cubic meters or less coal to oil projects with an annual output of 1 million tons or less are prohibited. In fact, this stard was proposed in 2013. Since 2006, the government has basically issued policies every year to clarify the approval stards for the coal chemical industry, trying to guide the development of the industry. In fact, these stards have not been strictly implemented. In order to obtain the benefits from the extension of the coal industry chain boost GDP employment, local governments have launched various coal chemical projects knowing that they violate the national stards. Therefore, for the country, stardizing the examination approval procedures formulating strict stards are on the one h, the more important thing is to strengthen the punishment supervision, so that the policy stards have due binding force execution. Local governments need to fully cooperate, reposition their roles, give priority to guidance service, avoid excessive participation in local economic development.

secondly, the environment water resources should be fully considered. Coal chemical industry is based on a large amount of coal consumption. This process will inevitably bring environmental pollution problems, coal chemical industry needs water resources protection. With the reverse distribution of coal mine resources water resources in China, coal chemical projects are mostly built in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi other prominent water shortage areas. Coal chemical enterprises in many areas not only occupy domestic water agricultural water, but also use groundwater to develop coal chemical industry. Water supply resources have brought great potential pollution. Therefore, the government should fully consider the local environmental carrying capacity governance costs in the project planning. In addition, strict emission energy consumption stards should be formulated, even matory technical improvement can be carried out. On the other h, more policy support should be given to coal chemical technology research development to reduce pollution improve energy conversion efficiency. Finally, the government should make reasonable planning effective guidance for the investment in coal chemical industry. The development of coal chemical industry has very high environmental requirements. We must fully consider various factors carefully demonstrate the feasibility of the project. On the one h, from the perspective of natural environment, the annual coal consumption of a coal chemical project is about several million tons. Considering the investment income years of the project the coal mining rate, it needs several billion tons of coal reserves to meet the long-term development needs of a coal chemical enterprise. Therefore, it is not suitable to develop coal chemical industry in an area if the coal resources are insufficient or the quality is poor. In addition, as mentioned above, the environmental carrying capacity, governance costs water resources conditions of the region also need to be carefully considered.

on the other h, from the perspective of project profitability, the current overheated investment is also due to some enterprises local governments blindly believe that there is a huge profit space in the coal chemical industry. In fact, the coal price will not remain depressed. With the gradual stabilization of coal price, the environmental cost human cost will rise rapidly, the profit space of coal chemical project will be compressed. What's more, once the overcapacity is serious, resulting in oversupply of some coal chemical products, the income of products made from coal is extremely low, or even there is no market, it is better to sell coal directly.

conclusion

to sum up, if "coal to gas" is to control environmental pollution, then the development of coal to gas will be contrary to the original intention. The main driving force of large-scale development of coal to gas should come from ensuring energy security or its economy. Because the conversion of coal to natural gas is itself a high coal consumption production process. Large scale development of coal to gas is not conducive to the total control of coal consumption, its pollution emission is higher than that of direct use of coal. Although coal to gas may adopt more advanced emission reduction technologies than coal-fired power generation, due to the low comprehensive energy conversion efficiency of coal-fired power generation, its emission is also higher than that of coal-fired power generation. In fact, the large-scale development of coal-to-gas instead of coal-fired will only transfer the pollution emission from the east to the west, which will increase the national emission on the whole, is not conducive to the response to climate change. Therefore, coal to gas should at most be a supplementary means to guarantee the supply dem of natural gas control haze. Unless the coal quality is not suitable for power generation, it is also a secondary energy source. Developing large-scale supercritical coal-fired power plants in the West transmitting them to the East through UHV may be cleaner more economical. Recently, the government of

has set a high threshold for the entry of coal to liquids gas, has also made clear the basic industrial policies: the development of coal to liquid (gas) can not be stopped, the development should not be overheated, the disordered construction should be prohibited; the principles of "carrying out according to the amount of water", clean efficient transformation, demonstration first, scientific reasonable layout independent innovation should be adhered to; demonstration projects must conform to industrial policies; Meet the specific energy conversion efficiency, energy consumption, water consumption, carbon dioxide emissions pollutant emissions other indicators. Generally speaking, it should be very comprehensive, but in reality, whether the coal chemical industry can be truly planned guided to develop healthily still needs the cooperation of the local government the effective supervision of the industry development. "


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