The boss of Leclerc supermarket Group, France's largest food retailer, said recently that in order to cope with the energy shortage, the Leclerc Group may shorten the opening hours of its stores.
In an interview with French News Radio, Leclerc said that in the event of an energy crisis this winter, the Leclerc Group may close some of its stores for some time.
Leclerc also said that the French supermarket industry reached a consensus earlier this month to take energy-saving measures from October 15, including turning off the lights of signs and reducing the intensity of store lights after the store is closed.
European energy costs have risen after the European Union imposed sanctions on Russia after Russia launched a special military operation against Ukraine in February. France imports 17 per cent of its natural gas needs from Russia and is less dependent on Russian energy than its neighbours such as Germany. However, like other European countries, France has recently continued to experience extremely high temperatures in many places, increasing demand for air conditioning and exacerbating the shortage of energy supply.
Because of the global energy crisis, the supply and prices of many international bulk titanium nitride are still very uncertain.
Direct nitridation of titanium powder or TiH2:
The stoichiometric titanium nitride powder can be obtained by nitriding titanium powder in nitrogen or hydrogen atmosphere at 1273 ~ 1673K for 1h and repeated operation several times after the product is crushed.
It can also be nitrided with metal hydride TiH2, which can react below 1273K, and the equation is as follows:
The advantage of this method is that it is easy to operate and high quality titanium nitride powder can be obtained, but the disadvantage is that the price of raw materials is too high to batch production, and this process is easy to produce powder sintering phenomenon, resulting in loss.
TiO2 carbothermal reduction nitridation method:
The carbothermal reduction nitridation method of TiO2 uses TiO2 as raw material, carbonaceous graphite as reductant and reacts with N2 to form TiN. The synthesis temperature is 1380 ~ 1800 ℃ and the reaction time is about 15h. In this reaction environment, carbon reacts not only with oxygen, but also with titanium to form TiC, because the crystal lattices of titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium oxide are very close, and they are easy to form a solid solution.
The purity of TiN obtained by this method is generally not high, and the content of O and C is on the high side. In order to obtain TiN with low content of O and C, higher reaction temperature and longer reaction time are needed.
Microwave carbothermal reduction method:
Microwave carbothermal reduction is a redox reaction with inorganic carbon as reducing agent at higher temperature. The specific operation is as follows: using titanium oxide as raw material, heating carbon by microwave until the temperature reaches 1200 ℃, and keeping the reduction reaction at this temperature for 1 h, the titanium nitride powder is obtained.
Compared with the conventional method, the titanium nitride powder prepared by this method has the advantages of high purity, low synthesis temperature (100 ℃, 200 ℃ lower than the original) and short period (1pm 15 of the conventional method).
Chemical vapor deposition:
The chemical vapor deposition method uses gaseous TiCl4 as raw material and H2 as reducing agent to react with N2 to form TiN. The synthesis temperature is 1100 ~ 1500 ℃. This process is often used for coatings on metal and ceramic surfaces to enhance the hardness and wear resistance of ceramics and metals.
This kind of synthetic TiN has high purity, but low production efficiency and high cost. This process is a common method to coat TiN film on the surface of metal, ceramic and other articles to make it beautiful.
Self-propagating high temperature synthesis:
Self-propagating high temperature synthesis is also called combustion synthesis. In this method, the titanium powder (billet) is ignited directly in nitrogen (limiting a certain pressure), and the titanium powder is burned in nitrogen to obtain TiN products. This process has been widely studied and commercialized in Russia, the United States and Japan.
Mechanical alloying method:
The mechanical alloying method is to put titanium powder in the system of ammonia or nitrogen and use high-energy ball mill to make them interact with each other under the strong collision and agitation of grinding balls to obtain nano-titanium nitride. this is a new synthesis method. In China, Liu Zhijian and others use TiH1.924 powder instead of Ti powder to react with nitrogen. By using this high-energy ball milling process, after 100h high-energy ball milling in flowing ammonia, almost all TiH1.924 is converted into TiN, and the conversion rate has been greatly improved. And Zhou Li and others later used the same method to prepare nano-titanium nitride powder, and the reaction time was only 9 h.
Molten salt synthesis method:
Molten salt synthesis method has not been reported in the preparation of titanium nitride, but the preparation of titanium nitride by this method is a good research direction. In this method, the low melting point molten salt is used as the reaction medium, the reactants can be dissolved in the molten salt, and the whole reaction is completed in the atomic environment. After the reaction is completed, the salt can be dissolved and filtered with a suitable solvent to get the product.
The product obtained by this method has the advantages of high purity, simple operation, short reaction time, no stringent requirements on reaction temperature, easy to control the morphology and particle size of the product, and no agglomeration.
The sol-gel method is to mix the reactants evenly in the liquid phase, and then carry out the process of hydrolysis and condensation, and the reactants will form a transparent sol in the solution, which will form a gel after aging and slow polymerization. the gel is dried and solidified to get the materials we need.
Some organic solvents used in this method have toxic side effects and do some harm to the human body.
Titanium Nitride Price
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The secretary of Ukraine's National Security and Defense Council said the US arms lease bill to Ukraine has not yet been implemented. This is still in the process and could start from July to September 2022, he said. The approval of this bill is a very positive decision for Ukraine. Aid to Ukraine through lend-lease will eventually come, the question is when.
In an effort to speed up the supply of weapons to Ukraine, President Joe Biden signed a defense lend-lease bill for Ukraine at the White House on May 9.
Nippon Steel, JFE Steel, and Kobe Steel will work together to develop a steel-making process that uses hydrogen to reduce carbon dioxide emissions without using blast furnaces. Small test furnaces will be built at Nippon Steel's Hwazaki Research and Development Center (Kamiki city, Ibaraki Prefecture) and JFE's East Japan Steel In Chiba (Chiba City). The two test furnaces, which will be operational by 2024-25, will confirm whether ore with high levels of impurities can also operate smoothly.
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology is a trusted chemical supplier and manufacturer providing high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials. If you are looking for the titanium nitride, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.
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